Scope & Methodology

The information presented has been collected, aggregated, and de-duplicated from a variety of sources, including a number of carbon credit marketplaces, published reports in the public domain, and our own research or insights with CDR projects.

Pathways currently represented include BECCS, Bio-Oil, Biochar, Direct Air Capture, Direct, Ocean Capture (Electrochemical OAE), Enhanced Weathering, Mineral, Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement, Ocean Biomass Sinking, Synthetic Biology, Terrestrial Biomass Sinking.

We only cover projects that meet at least the following criteria: 

  • Project engages in CDR (i.e. no CCS or CCU). For better distinction of how we differentiate between those categories, please visit page 4 of the following report. This is the equivalent of the category V from The Oxford Principles for Net Zero Aligned Carbon Offsetting (on page 7 of the report). 
  • Project captures and removes CO2 from the atmosphere for at least several centuries (or has a path to do so).
  • Project has a technology readiness level of at least 3.

Glossary of terms

Carbon Removal Categories

Direct Air Capture (DAC) includes Direct Air Capture and Direct Air Carbon Capture & Storage. A technology that uses chemical processes to capture and separate CO2 directly from the ambient air, typically using large fan-like machines. Usually combined with a storage solution such as injection into geological reservoirs.

Enhanced Rock Weathering (ERW) is a process that speeds up the chemical reactions between rocks, water, and air to remove CO₂ from the atmosphere. Typically performed by spreading finely ground rock material onto extensive land areas such as agricultural soils.

Bio-based with long-term storage include methods using biomass or seaweed as a carbon vehicle to move CO2 from the atmosphere (through photosynthesis) into long-term storage – through either combustion (BECCS), gasification (bio-oil), pyrolysis (biochar) or preservation (sinking in deep water).

Ocean Alkalinity includes Electrochemical Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement (Direct Ocean Capture) and Mineral Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement. Electrochemical Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement : by electrochemical separation (also called “Direct Ocean Capture”), which removes acidity from seawater and returns a more basic solution to enhance ocean alkalinity. Mineral Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement: by adding rocks to the ocean which dissolve to enhance alkalinity.

Storage (storage-only or storage-first with capture partner(s)) includes concrete, mineralization, injection into geological reservoirs, carbon nano-materials.

EU Technological Readiness Level Definitions

TRL 9: Actual system proven in operational environment (competitive manufacturing in the case of key enabling technologies; or in space).

TRL 8: System complete and qualified.

TRL 7: System prototype demonstration in operational environment.

TRL 6: Technology demonstrated in relevant environment (industrially relevant environment in the case of key enabling technologies).

TRL 5: Technology validated in relevant environment (industrially relevant environment in the case of key enabling technologies).

TRL 4: Technology validated in lab.

TRL 3: Experimental proof of concept.

TRL 2: Technology concept formulated.

TRL 1: Basic principles observed.

Development Stage

Lab: The lab stage is the initial stage of a project, where research is conducted and the technology is tested in a laboratory environment.

Pilot: The pilot stage is the next stage in a project, where the technology is tested in a real-world environment. At this stage, the project is scaled up to a larger size and is able to test the technology on a larger scale.

Demonstration: The demonstration stage is the stage where the technology is tested in a commercial setting, and is used to demonstrate the feasibility and profitability of the technology.

Commercialisation: The commercialisation stage is the final stage of a project, where the technology is ready for commercial use. At this stage, the technology is ready to be adopted on a large scale, and is ready to be used to remove carbon from the atmosphere.

General terminology

CDR: Carbon Dioxide Removals

CCS: Carbon Capture & Storage

CCU: Carbon Capture & Utilisation

MRV: Measurement, Reporting and Verification

CAPEX: Capital Expenditures

OPEX: Operational expenditure


The information shared on this data platform is not all-encompassing or comprehensive. No information in this page should be considered to be business or financial advice regarding carbonˣ. Certain statements and estimates featured in this page are forward-looking statements that are based on and take into consideration certain known and unknown contingencies which in eventuality may cause the estimated results or may differ factually and substantially from the featured estimates expressed in such forward-looking statements herewith.

This page may contain references to third party research, data and industry publications. No warranty is given to the accuracy and completeness of this third-party information. Neither the third-party information, its inferences nor its assumptions have been independently verified.