Pathway Data

Breakdown of primary cost and employee data across removal pathways

Pathway Activity per Sub-Category

Number of companies


Cost Breakdown per Removal Category


  • Analysis based on 32, Fall 2022 Frontier Climate CDR applications.
  • OPEX excludes the measurement & quantification of removals.
  • Quantification of net removals includes field measurements and other internal methods.
  • MRV includes third party MRV and registry. Note: in the absence of third party MRV and registry for most pathways, numbers are mostly predictions or not yet included.
  • For terms and definitions, please visit the glossary of terms.


Total Employees per Sub-Category

Median Employees per Sub-Category