Breakdown of primary cost categories across removal pathways

Last updated: March 2nd, 2023

Cost Breakdown per Removal Category


  • Analysis based on 32, Fall 2022 Frontier Climate CDR applications.
  • OPEX excludes the measurement & quantification of removals.
  • Quantification of net removals includes field measurements and other internal methods.
  • MRV includes third party MRV and registry. Note: in the absence of third party MRV and registry for most pathways, numbers are mostly predictions or not yet included.
  • For terms and definitions, please visit the glossary of terms.